The Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (SPAR) form a suite of orthogonal and complementary ontology modules for creating comprehensive machine-readable RDF metadata for all aspects of semantic publishing and referencing. The ontologies can be used either individually or in conjunction as need dictates. The component ontologies within SPAR:* Semantic Publishing** FaBiO - FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology** PRO - Publishing Roles Ontology** PSO - Publications Status Ontology** PWO - Publishing Workflow Ontology* Referencing** CiTO - Citation Typing Ontology** BiRO - Bibliographic Reference Ontology** C4O - Citation Counting and Context Characterization Ontology** DoCO - Document Components OntologyEach is encoded in the Web ontology language OWL 2.0 DL. Together they provide the ability to describe far more than simply bibliographic entities such as books and journal articles by enabling RDF metadata to be created to relate these entities to reference citations to bibliographic records to the component parts of documents and to various aspects of the scholarly publication process.Where appropriate the SPAR ontologies specifically FaBiO the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology and BiRO the Bibliographic Reference Ontology employ the FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) classification model a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLAI) as a generalized view of the bibliographic universe intended to be independent of any cataloging code or implementation. FRBR distinguishes Works Expressions Manifestations and Items.
SPAR - Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies